Types of Spin
You have two types of spin when you hit your golf shot--back spin and forward spin. Back spin will cause your ball to rise high and stay close to where it lands with little forward roll. Sometimes, depending on spin rate, your ball may even roll back after it hits the ground. A forward spin will make your ball stay lower to the ground, but roll much farther after impact.
Impact of Shorter Clubs
Your shorter clubs are designed to produce more loft and shorter distances. They give you more control over where the ball lands. The shorter clubs, such as the sand wedge, pitching wedge, lob and gap wedges, all have club faces with high lofts. Loft is the angle that the club will launch the ball into the air. If you have a higher launch angle, you will have a higher ball flight and more back spin. The proper loft and trajectory for these clubs is always dependent on hitting the ball with a downward strike.
Impact of Longer Clubs
The longer clubs are designed to create less back spin and even some forward spin as the clubs get longer. With each longer club you will see that the loft angle of the club face is shorter. Loft angles on your shortest clubs can be around 60 degrees, while your longest club, the driver, can be 10.5 degrees. PGA Tour members have drivers with lofts as low as 7.5 degrees. With less loft, your ball will roll much farther but you will have less control over your shot's distance. The fairway grass conditions will always affect how far your ball rolls after it lands.