Cold air is heavy, therefore it creates more resistance to the flight of the ball.
Cold, heavier winds naturally encourage golfers to swing harder, which will
create more errors.
It will cause you to be out of position through impact, allowing your right
side to dominate (for right golfers) at the inappropriate time. By having a
more reckless swing to counteract the cooler weather, this action will move
your right arm and shoulder out of the desired position. This will force the
club head to approach the ball in a too steep angle. In golf talk: "coming
over the top of the ball."
Because of the colder temperatures, all players should gear their swings to
produce a lower trajectory to the flight of the ball. To accomplish this, the
swing plane (path that the club travels) should be in a shallower arc. This
will allow the club head to contact the ball properly. Also, play the ball
slightly back in your stance.
One of the essential keys is to have your shoulders set up correctly at
address. Having your shoulders in the proper position will encourage good
shoulder motion throughout your swing. In the set-up (starting position),
the right shoulder should be slightly lower than the left, with the right
arm relaxed and the elbow gently tucked. From this position, the right
allows the left to control the takeaway. Remember the left leads, and
the right follows.
A very common error is that the right shoulder is too high through the
hitting area. A simple, quick fix is to not allow your right shoulder to
pass the ball. This will encourage you to come into the ball with more of
an uppercut type blow (much like a boxer), as opposed to a roundhouse
spinning motion that is too hard to time up consistently.
Also, when you're out there playing in this colder weather, protect your
head, feet and hands. Try to keep your golf balls warm as well. Taking
care of your equipment and yourself will make playing the game more
enjoyable during this brief period of colder weather.